To perform addition without using + or ++ (or java.lang.Math class which internally uses +), we will have to perform addition using logical operators. To understand how addition works using logical operators, we will have to take it at binary level.

Lets try addition of 25 & 15 which should result in 40. We will first convert 25 & 15 into binary.

x = 25 = 00011001

y = 15 = 00001111

### Manual addition of binary numbers

As we all know, manually addition of binary on paper is done using below rules.

Rules:

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0 + 0 = 0, carry 0 0 + 1 = 1, carry 0 1 + 0 = 1, carry 0 1 + 1 = 0, carry 1 Special: 1 + 1 + 1 = (1 + 1) + 1 = (0, carry 1) + 1 = 1 , carry 1 |

Addition of 25 & 15 in binary: Add digits right to left using above rules, Add carry to left digit. Consider carry in addition of next left digit & use same rules again & so on.

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0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 <-- Carry --------------- 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 <-- 25 + 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 <-- 15 ---------------- 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 <-- 40 |

### Do this programmatically

Now if you look at rules, you might find some similarity with the truth tables of some logical operations.

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Rules: 0 + 0 = 0, carry 0 0 + 1 = 1, carry 0 1 + 0 = 1, carry 0 1 + 1 = 0, carry 1 This is similar to XOR truth table 0 + 0 = 0 0 + 1 = 1 1 + 0 = 1 1 + 1 = 0 This is similar to AND truth table. 0 + 0 = carry 0 0 + 1 = carry 0 1 + 0 = carry 0 1 + 1 = carry 1 |

So basically XOR can tell us the addition of digit without carry & AND operator can tell us carry. There’s one slight catch here. Carry is supposed to be added in earlier/left digit, so basically once you figure out carry, you will have to shift left by 1 position to actually use carry in addition.

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0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 <-- 25 + 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 <-- 15 ---------------- 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 <-- XOR (This is 'sum without carry') 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 <-- AND 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 <-- AND with left shift (This is 'carry') Now lets add 'sum without carry' & 'carry' using SAME method. --------------- 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 <-- XOR (This is 'sum without carry') 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 <-- AND 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 <-- AND with left shift (This is 'carry') Now lets add 'sum without carry' & 'carry' using SAME method. --------------- 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 <-- XOR (This is 'sum without carry') 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 <-- AND 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 <-- AND with left shift (This is 'carry') Now lets add 'sum without carry' & 'carry' using SAME method. --------------- 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 <-- XOR (This is 'sum without carry') 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <-- AND 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 <-- AND with left shift (This is 'carry') --> Now here carry is all ZERO i.e. we have taken care of all carry. Hence, 'sum without carry' is our final sum |

0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 = 40 (Which is correct sum of 25 + 15)

### Java Code to achieve this

Below Java code achieves exact same steps shown above using Bitwise XOR (^), Bitwise AND (&) & Left Shift (<<) operator.

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// Addition without + or ++ public static int add(int x, int y){ while(y != 0){ x = x ^ y; int carry = x & y; y = carry << 1; } return x; } |